E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 5 (4)
Volume: 5  Issue: 4 - 2021
1.Antique myths in the works of John Fowles
Melahat Gerayzadeh
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.64935  Pages 1 - 7
John Fowles was award winning post World-War II novelist. His works were full of allusions referring to the Greek philosophy and Celtic romance. Thus his works became most popular, at the same time had critical acclaim. Nowadays a lot of attention is given to the psychological peculiarities of people and it is described in the works of famous writers. Although the mythological encounters in Fowles's work have been studied by many (f.e. A.A.Piruzyan, E.M.Tsigler, N.Y. Zhluktenko) scholars, these studies do not provide a comprehensive approach to the issue. In this regard, the topic of research is particularly relevant. Thus in the works of Fowles we can see many psychological references. Our aim is to investigate myths in his works. For this purpose, the materials of the author's works (“Wormholes”, “French Lieutenant's Woman”, “The Magus”) are analyzed, and the plot line of the works is compared with ancient mythology. The comparative analysis of several works of Fowles in this direction within a single scientific research constitutes the scientific novelty of the research. Using descriptive method we see that mythology became significant component in the works. As the conclusion we can say that as Fowles is considered modern writer, elements of postmodernism, modernism and realism are being shown in his works. His appeal to mythology makes his works valuable by the psychological aspect. The practical value of this work is that the results can be used in the course of foreign literature.

2.Ad-hoc lexical units as markers of communicative strategies in the TV-series “Sex and the City”
Diana Haydanka, Vira Nikonova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.66933  Pages 8 - 16
The paper aims at elucidating manipulative potential of ad-hoc word-formation the TV-series through the prism of linguocognitive and pragmatic approaches. The prospects of identifying communicative strategies that underlie ad-hoc words in the dramedy lay grounds to contemplating their role as markers of the manipulative impact optimisation. The paper proposes to elucidate the role of various word-building types of ad-hoc units in construing memorable characters that the viewing audience can identify with by means of the integrated linguocognitive and communicative analysis. Given that the telecinematic discourse presents a complex multimodal unity, operating at two levels: diegetic and extradiegetic, the author argues that ad-hoc units realize communicative strategies of self-presentation and characterisation at both in-film and through-film levels, correlating with the two key functions of dramedy: attraction and manipulation. Various word-building types of ad-hoc units that serve as markers of the self-presentation strategy help the mainly female characters express themselves, at the same time with the collective author construing an image of a charismatic and independent thirty-something heroine. Ad-hoc units that realise the characterisation strategy are mainly used in witty friendly banters (diegetic level) to highlight stereotypical relationships problems.

3.Formation of New Professional and Communicative Identity of Future Police Officers
Olena Yevdokimova, Ivan Okhrimenko, Yana Ponomarenko, Alla Shylina, Nataliia Hresa
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.70446  Pages 17 - 26
The article reveals the process of development of a new professional and communicative identity of future patrol police officers. The aim of the research is to study the types of behavior in the professional environment and identify the experiences associated with the work of the police at the initial professional training stage (students) and after six months of work (patrol policemen). The research involved 302 patrol police officers, the first group – 177 students, the second group – 125 patrol policemen. The results of the study indicate differences in the indicators related to the experience of future police patrols and those already working. We have identified dominant spheres of personality and types of behavior of policemen. It is argued that the beliefs of future police officers concerning the positive dynamics of events will meet their expectations, and therefore, it will contribute to harmonious professional and communicative development. The obtained results update the development of psychological technologies in order to optimize the development of the professional and communicative identity of the policemen at each of the stages of professionalization. In addition, they become the basis for the formation of active stress coping strategies and, consequently, the increase in professional performance. It is concluded that important prerequisite for the development of professional and communicative identity is the professional socialization and the period of training, because it is exactly at the initial stage of entry into the profession when it is important to create psychological and pedagogical conditions for self-realization in the future professional activities.

4.The Use of Address Terms by Saudi Facebook Users in Arabic: A Discursive Approach
Mohammad Abdoh Mahzari
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.09825  Pages 27 - 42
This study aimed to identify the address terms used by Saudi Facebook users and understand the address behavior in Facebook. Most of the studies investigated the use of address terms in Arabic in face-to-face communication, but not on Facebook, a dominant platform for everyday online communication and rich with naturalistic data. A total of 1258 Facebook comments were collected from 36 Facebook walls and analyzed based on Friederike Braun’s (1988) nouns of address. New types and sub-subtypes were added to Braun’s exhaustive list because of the Facebook context. While the Saudi Facebook users employed ten types of address terms, the most common were teknonyms, terms of endearment, proper names, and titles by appointment. Additionally, four types of endearment terms were used, such as fictive terms, affective vocatives, praise attributes, and diminutives. Of those terms, fictive terms and affective vocatives were the most common sub-types of terms of endearment. Moreover, the first name was used mostly with titles, such as duktu: r ‘doctor/professor,’ muhandis ‘engineer/architecture,’ and ʔustadh ‘professor/teacher.’ The function of titles was not to have a social distance with the Facebook poster, but to show appreciation or deference for the addressee. Specifically, titles were employed by friends, relatives, and colleagues to support a relationship, not to create social distance or reinforce the degree of formality. Finally, the functions and meanings of Arabic address terms need to be explored in public online platforms, such as Twitter, public Facebook walls, YouTube, etc.

5.Psychological Fundamentals of a Translator’s Work Relevant to Rendering Realia while Translating Fiction for Teenagers
Olena Holub, Victoria Roman, Viktoriya Domina, Inna Grabovska, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.55798  Pages 43 - 52
The object of the presented paper is to outline the specific features of a teenager’s conception thinking relevant for the translator’s choice of the most adequate way of rendering realia in literary translation. In order to attain this objective general scientific and linguistic methods have been applied, namely, inductive and deductive methods, the method of definitional and contrastive analysis. Realia have been selected from literary works written for teenagers and their translations into Ukrainian by means of continuous sampling. The general amount of the realia under analysis is 83. The authors state that the secondary school pupils’ verbal thinking will develop under such conditions when their social environment provides challenges aimed at involving them into the culture, social life and various kinds of adults’ activities. It has been emphasized that education, encouragement of young person’s interest to reading fiction develop teenagers’ conceptual sphere, their memory, speech skills and imagination. Acquisition of new concepts, intellectual development of a young person demand continuous stimulation. That is why the translator has to solve a very complicated task: he has to balance the ways of rendering realia which bring them close to the recipient’s own culture, and such strategies of handling realia which help to render the national specificity of the concept which is new for the young reader.
As the analysis of the ways of rendering realia in translations of fiction for teenagers shows, the most accurate of them is that which combines transcription (as the instrument of creating specific ethnic colouring) with simultaneous explication of the notion expressed by the transcribed word. Following the terminology introduced by R. Zorivchak, this way is called “combined renomination”. The importance of explication, footnotes, glossaries compiled by the translators of literary works for teenagers has been underlined.

6.Psycholinguistic Peculiarities of Employing Antonymic Translation (based on translation of modern fiction for young adults)
Olena Holub, Volodymyr Glushchenko, Victoria Roman, Viktoriya Domina, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.56688  Pages 53 - 63
The object of the presented paper is to outline the specific psycholinguistic causes relevant to the translator’s choice of antonymic translation as one of the lexical and semantic transformations used in literary translation. To attain this objective general scientific and linguistic methods have been applied, namely, the method of definitional, syntactic, and contrastive analysis. Samples of antonymic translation have been selected employing continuous sampling from the novel ‘Speak’ written for young adults by the American writer L. H. Anderson and its translation into Ukrainian done by the authors of the paper. The total amount of units under analysis is 252. To verify the validity of the assumption that the translator is naturally inclined to use the antonymic substitution while rendering categorical statements, an experiment has been conducted. 10 students of the English and German languages department have been asked to translate 10 micro-dialogues created specifically for the purposes of the present experiment and containing one word with an element of negative evaluation in its semic structure. The proposition of translations created with the use of antonymic translation turned out to be low. This has been explained by the specific character of the material offered for translation. Psycholinguistic causes of using antonymic translation come to the fore when the translator deals with a literary text and feels empathy for the author, the main character, and the reader. The authors state that antonymic translation receives a powerful impetus from antinomies that act at the interlinguistic level. Though it has been emphasized that psycholinguistic modelling of translator’s activity reveals the significant role of psychological reasons motivating the translator to apply negative-positive, positive-negative inversions, and conversive translation.

7.Major Components of Military Translation Course Design
Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.35761  Pages 64 - 70
The content, goals and objectives, and characteristics of the structural and logical scheme of studying the discipline "Military Translation" by future border guard officers as part of the educational and professional training of bachelors of philology have been considered in the article. The author focuses the special attention on the discipline "Military Translation", which is mandatory for fourth-year cadets of the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and is studied during the 7th and 8th semesters. The main attention is paid to program competencies and program learning outcomes of future border guard officers of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine specializing in "Philology" (humanities branch) for the first (Bachelor's) level of higher education, which are grouped into general and special (professional, subject) competencies. The structural and logical scheme of the course of "Military Translation" has been revealed in general focusing attention to the following topics: Organization of the United States Armed Forces, US Army, US Air Force and Navy, US Department of Homeland Security, Translation of socio-political texts, World migration processes, International border security.

8.Evolution of the Category of Modality as a Component of Speech Tactics
Anna Kosenko, Nataliya Pasichnyk, Olga Plavutska, Nataliia Zakordonets, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.87094  Pages 71 - 83
This article is an investigation of modality. It considers the term modality to be rather elusive. The present paper aims at contributing to some postulates, pertaining modality, its main properties and ways of expression. It is due to the fact that in linguistics it is possible to find different approaches to the category of modality. It is highlighted that modality is a category of linguistic meaning having to do with the expression of possibility and necessity. As well it is generally accepted that modality should be defined as a semantic domain which covers a range of values (jussive, desirative, eventual, hypothetical, probable, possible, necessary) expressing the opinion, the attitude or the judgment of the utterer in relation to the propositional content of the utterance. In the article the distinction is made between terms modality and mood. It is emphasized that modal expressions can compositionally interact with other expressions. As well in the article five main types of modality, five senses in which the various categories of modality may be understood are distinguished: extensional modality, temporal modality, tense and duration, natural modality, logical and ethical modalities. There is a basic dichotomy in the categorization of modalities, which distinguishes between epistemic and non-epistemic, that is deontic, modality. Its output can be considered in textbooks on theoretical grammar and lexicology, in manuals on modality and the ways of its expression, on the development of English dialogical speech skills.

9.Structure of "Introduction to Language Studies" Course
Ihor Bloshchynskyi, Olha Babich, Iryna Bets, Tania Shchegoleva, Olha Mysechko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.00236  Pages 84 - 90
The content and objectives of the discipline "Introduction to Language Studies" by future border guard officers as part of the educational and professional training of bachelors of philology have been considered in the article. The course "Introduction to Language Studies" is compulsory for second-year cadets of the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and is studied during the 4th semester at the Department of Foreign Languages. The main attention is paid to the revealing of a number of program competencies of future border guard officers of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine specializing in "Philology" (humanities branch) for the first (Bachelor's) level of higher education, which are grouped into: general competencies and special (professional, subject) competencies. The structural and logical scheme of studying the discipline "Introduction to Language Studies" by cadets have been presented in detail considering such topics: General Issues of Language Studies, Phonetics and Graphics, Vocabulary and Phraseology, Grammar. Considerable attention is also paid to the disclosure of program learning outcomes in the discipline "Introduction to Language Studies" of educational program in the field of knowledge "Humanities" on the specialty "Philology" for “Tactical Level Officer – Future Bachelors of Philology” training.

10.Main Components of Communicative Activities of Future Legists with Sense of Loneliness
Ivan Okhrimenko, Yuliia Boiko-buzyl, Zoryana Kisil, Halyna Katolyk, Natalia Miloradova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.87360  Pages 91 - 103
Modern social and psychological studies of loneliness involve the analysis of many personal problems that relate to various manifestations of human life, especially in the field of interpersonal contacts and communication. Loneliness as a complex and acute experience, which reveals special forms of self-knowledge, attitude to oneself and the world, attracts attention in terms of communicative behaviour and changes that can happen to a human being on the path of self-formation and professional development. Therefore, the study of the relationship between personality traits and feelings of loneliness is of particular interest, especially in the category of future specialists in the field of “human being – human being”, such as law specialists, who, within a framework of their professional activities, constantly cooperate with people, interact, communicate with them and guard their freedoms and interests. The aim of the research is to determine the individual and psychological traits and manifestation characteristics of loneliness in future legal practitioners and law enforcement officers in terms of their communicative activities. The research is based on the use of a number of methods of psychological diagnosis, with the help of which 380 future law enforcement specialists have been surveyed. The results obtained have been processed using the methods of mathematical statistics. Empirical data have shown that there is a relationship between the personality traits of specialists and manifestations of loneliness as a part of social and communicative processes. The research will help to understand the feasibility of introducing communicative linguistics in the process of law specialists training and the development of psychological support for law enforcement officers.

11.The Level of Logical Thinking of Female Students who Specialize in Various Sports and its Relation with the Success of Foreign Languages Learning
Mykhailo Khoroshukha, Grygoriy Griban, Anatolii Bosenko, Bogdan Semeniv, Volodymyr Tarasyuk, Lyubov Kanishevska, Liudmyla Honchar, Katerina Zhurba, Tetyana Skyrda, Iryna Shkilna, Kostiantyn Prontenko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.04875  Pages 104 - 112
The article is devoted to the research of the influence of training loads of different orientations on the level of logical thinking of female athletes and its relation with the success of foreign languages learning by them. The research involved 17–20 years old female students (n = 114), who were engaged in various sports during their studies. Two experimental groups were formed: group A (n = 50) consisted of female students who were engaged in speed and strength sports (freestyle wrestling, track and field athletics: sprinting, hurdling, jumping, shot putting and discus throwing); group B (n = 64) was represented by female students who practiced endurance sports (skiing, track and field athletics: 800, 1500, 3000 and 5000 m running; 200, 400 and 1500 m swimming). The control group (group C) consisted of female students who were not engaged in sports (n = 97). The research of indicators of logical thinking was carried out according to the method of “Numerical series”. In addition, we investigated the results of educational activities of female students of experimental and control groups on the average score in foreign (English) language learning. It was found that there are insignificant changes in the indicators of logical thinking under the influence of physical loads of speed and strength nature and there is a statistically significant improvement under the influence of loads on endurance. It was also found that the success of mastering foreign language by the students of the experimental group who practiced endurance sports is better than in the students of the control group, but without any significant difference. This shows that the rational combination of sports and learning does not harm the educational process, but also facilitates the foreign languages learning by female students.

12.Compound Nouns in the German Terminology of the Border Guarding Sphere
Roman Dudok, Olesya Tatarovska, Natalia Tsyntar, Larysa Tsviak, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.08831  Pages 113 - 117
Constant changes in all the spheres of human life certainly affect the process of development of the vocabulary of the language, because the new objects and concepts must be nominated, respectively, new lexical units are formed. Compounding is a common way of word formation in the German language. This phenomenon mostly affects nouns. In German, compound nouns are defined as composites, characterized by specific semantic and structural features as well as certain features of formation and functioning. In the field of border guarding (BG) and protection, German compound nouns function for the purpose of nominating the relevant border concepts.

13.Distant English teaching to deaf and hard of hearing students: a case study of Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Elena Krasheninnikova, Galina V. Kirsanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.28247  Pages 118 - 125
As the title implies the paper describes approaches to teaching the English language to students who are deaf or hard of hearing at Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU/Bauman) with an emphasis on distant teaching and learning under COVID-19 pandemic conditions in spring of 2020. A focus is on the analysis of deaf and hard of hearing students’ attitudes to remote learning based on the results of two online surveys aimed at better understanding deaf and hard of hearing students’ needs related to English teaching and learning.
Keywords: Linguistics, English for Specific Purposes, ESP, distant teaching and learning, teaching deaf and hard of hearing students, hearing-impaired students

14.Trends in the development of tertiary education in the context of modern challenges
Olena Khomova, Kateryna Yanchytska, Oleksandr Shkatula, Valentina Burak, Olena Frolova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.04372  Pages 126 - 133
Achievement of stable economic growth and ensuring innovative development, the needs of the creative economy for specialists with digital skills can be considered as one of the main challenges for the sphere of tertiary education. Therefore, the education system should provide a high level of service quality in order to meet the needs of labor markets. Globalization and international cooperation between the EU and Asia exacerbate these problematic issues. The purpose of the research lies in systematizing the basic challenges of the external environment and their impact on the transformation and development trends of tertiary education on the example of the EU states. Methodology. The research is based on quantitative methodology and statistical analysis. The development indicators of higher education of the EU countries for 2013-2018 from the database of Eurostat and the World Bank have been used for the analysis. The results prove the complexity of the links between social-economic, environmental and political issues, which determine the dynamics of tertiary education and transformational changes in tertiary education. The following key challenges have been highlighted in the academic paper, namely: 1) development of creative economy, innovation economy and knowledge economy; 2) external shocks, such as a pandemic; 3) technological progress and integration of technologies into education; 4) increasing the level of migration flows and strengthening the problem of educational inequality; 5) spreading the practice of commercialization and privatization of tertiary educational institutions (TEIs); 6) globalization and internationalization of tertiary education due to international cooperation between different countries and regions.

15.Psychological Factors of the Formation of Communicative Components of Adolescent Addicts
Denys Aleksandrov, Ivan Okhrimenko, Olga Olefir, Iryna Dmytriieva, Alina Ivanenko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.29863  Pages 134 - 144
Modern psychological researches on addictive behaviour involve the analysis of many personal factors that relate to different areas of human social life. It is known that addictions negatively affect the social adaptability of the individuality and especially affect the violations of communicative components, which determine the various deviations of different spheres of social interaction. Violations of communicative components become especially dangerous in adolescence, when the personality is being formed in the process of socialization. Therefore, adolescent addiction is a real threat to the future of society. This requires scientific researches aimed at studying the factors that determine the deformation of the communicative components of adolescents under the influence of addictions. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of adolescence, which would allow for individualized prophylactic treatment taking into account socio-psychological, individual-psychological and psycho-physiological gender differences. The aim of the research is to determine the psychological factors of the formation of communicative components of adolescent addicts. The research is based on the use of a number of methods of psychological diagnosis, which examined 306 adolescents of both sexes in the age of 14-17, some of whom have severe signs of addiction and undergo rehabilitation in drug treatment centres in Kyiv, and others without signs of addiction acted as a control group. Empirical data have demonstrated the relationship between a fundamentally different constellation of psychological factors that determine the formation of communicative components in adolescents burdened with addiction and normotypic contemporaries. The research will help to understand the psychological factors of formation and functioning of communicative components of addicts, which determine their social maladaptation. This opens up prospects for improving psychoprophylactic measures aimed at preventing adolescent addiction.

16.University Student’s Image: Communicative Aspect
Tetiana Plachynda, Tetiana Dovga, Dolores Zavitrenko, Artem Zavitrenko, Kateryna Kryzhevska
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.69783  Pages 145 - 150
The article deals with the problem of image of the student of higher education institution. The purpose of the research is to reveal understanding of the essence of the image by representatives of universities from different industries (the survey covered future aviation specialists, educators and physicians), which allowed not only to get acquainted with the views of future specialists of different specialties, but also to identify views that share common traits that create a positive and negative personality image and analyze the attitude to the image by the students themselves on the bases of communicative approach.
Future experts were invited to express their opinion on the image of the modern student through the answers to the questionnaire "Student image", created by the authors of the article. In the context of European integration, the international community places high demands on specialists of any profile, in particular: high level of education, general culture, fluency in foreign languages, etc. The positive image of the high school student encompasses the traits which have organized into the following groups: education, responsibility, discipline, communication skills.
From the point of view of the respondents who participated in the survey, the image of the student is condemning and significantly reduces the quality of the educational process: irresponsibility, overconfidence, non-punctuality, ignoring the rules of behavior during the educational process, delay, indifference, indifference. The research made it possible to clarify the views of the student youth on the positive and negative image of the student, so further research will be directed to the development and implementation of recommendations for the formation of a positive image of the student in higher education.

17.Saudi Learners' Attitudes Toward Using Blackboard in Learning English Language: Based on Activity Theory
Saleh Mohammad Ali Alqahtani Alqahtani
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03206  Pages 151 - 166
In recent times, the way of learning as well as teaching in educational institutions and organizations has undergone a significant transformation. With the outbreak of the Covid-19, Saudi Arabia’s ministry of education (higher education sector) has shifted the learning of the English language via Blackboard. Therefore, it prompts the need to better understand technology and its antecedents. This paper aims to evaluate the use of Blackboard as a learning tool concerning its usefulness and effectiveness along with learner satisfaction and behavioral intention. This study takes an activity theory approach to develop a research model to assess learner attitudes toward the new technology, Blackboard. The data used in this study were obtained from 156 undergraduate students using Blackboard technology at the University of Jeddah through a comprehensive questionnaire. All data analyses were performed using the structural equation modeling technique through SPSS 22 and AMOS 22. The study involved the calculation of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation). Structural equation modeling was used to confirm the standardized factor loading and analyze the hypotheses of the study. The convergent validity was determined using composite reliability and average variance extracted along with standardized factor loading. Perceived self-efficacy, self-regulation, anxiety, autonomy, and ease of use, as well as interactive learning environments are expected to have a positive effect on the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of Blackboard as learning tools. These are important factors to determine learner behavioral intention that consequently promote learning effectiveness. The study contributes a significant part in the adoption of technology and e-learning, which can help an institution identify the factors that motivate the students to adopt e-learning.

18.The Representation of Violence in Shakespeare’s King Lear and Bond’s Lear
Ayman Farid Khafaga
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.54036  Pages 167 - 178
This paper presents a thematic comparison to the theme of violence in both William Shakespeare’s King Lear and Edward Bond’s Lear. In doing so, the paper tries to draw an intertextual link between the two plays, wherein Shakespearean original is dexterously employed as an intertext to Bond’s play. The main objective of this paper is to show the extent to which the theme of violence is represented in the two plays, by shedding light on the technicalities through which violence is intertextually dramatized in Bond’s Lear. Two main research questions are addressed here: first, how does Bond make use of Shakespeare’s play to present the theme violence in his Lear? Second, to what extent does Bond deviate from Shakespeare’s classic to prove his originality? Two main findings have been revealed in this paper: first, unlike Shakespeare’s King Lear in which violence plays a subsidiary role, the violence in Bond’s Lear is the major theme around which other themes such as capitalism revolve; and second, Bond’s technique in presenting violence highlights the reciprocal relationship between violence and modern technology, which, in turn, implies that the misuse of modern technology is one reason that creates violence and reinforces it.

19.The examination of constraint of university students participation in recreational physical activities
Mehmet Ali Öztürk, Eyyüp Sarýkol
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.57983  Pages 179 - 184
This research, which aims to determine the motivation of university students to participate in recreational physical activities and to compare them, is a field study. The research was carried out with the participation of 837 faculty students, n = 334 from Bartýn University and n = 503 from Karabük University, in the fall semester of the 2019-2020 academic year. In the study, the "Recreational activities participation scale" consisting of 28 items and 7 sub-dimensions was used. Parametric tests were used in the study because of the normal distribution of the data as a result of the normality distribution. Research findings aiming to evaluate especially on the basis of gender; It showed that both male and female students from Bartýn University participating in the study had more negative participation in recreational physical activities than Karabük University students. While statistical significance was detected at the level of p <0.005 in the sub-dimensions of physical characteristics, field conditions and mental reasons among female participants, a significance at the level of p <0.005 was found in the physical characteristics and mental reasons sub-dimensions among male students. According to the results of the research, it was shown that the motivation of participating in recreational physical activities of the students studying at Karabük University was higher than the students studying at Bartýn University.

20.Organization of web sites as a way of introducing internet technologies into the educational process of High school
Irina Drozdova, Sokol Mariana, Tetiana Herasymchuk, Olena Tymoshchuk, Lyudmila Babay, Natalia Ryabokon
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.09483  Pages 185 - 190
The article investigates the specifics of the introduction of Internet technologies, namely: the role of the website in teaching students to form the personality of the specialist while maintaining the best academic standards. Contradictions between the level of development of information technologies and the level of theoretical and practical development of their use are revealed. It is noted that a systematic and comprehensive approach to the use of websites helps to combine traditional teaching methods and the latest features of the Internet. Empirical research methods have identified the principles leading to the use of the teacher's website to prepare students for further professional activities; as well as pedagogical functions of Internet technologies in teaching students. To assess the effectiveness of involving the teacher's website in the learning process, the criteria, benefits, and indicators of the effectiveness of the organization of independent work of students, as well as indicators of the quality of learning technology. The article highlights the stages of work on creating a personal website for the teacher. Some advantages and possibilities of using the website not only in educational activities but also for the formation of the image of a higher education institution and advertising of its products are characterized. It is noted that the teacher's website integrates with Moodle, Zoom, Google, Skype, and other applications. The use of a website allows the teacher to define clearly their working hours and report on the results of their work. It is emphasized that the teacher's website allows for presentations, consultations and provides any necessary information for students, graduate students, or applicants

21.Digital Instruments And Country Linguacultural Definitions Of Mass Recruitment For Large Retailers
Irina Petrovna Bogomolova, Elena Ivanovna KRIVENKO, Lyudmila Timofeevna Trineeva, Victoria Borisovna Malitskaya, Natalia Nikolaevna VOLKOVA
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93206  Pages 191 - 200
We picked recruitment services at large Russian retailers as an object of our research. Not only fast economic and retail development depend on retailers’ effectiveness, but also success in solving some important social tasks at the state level. Our research assesses the trends of the Russian alcohol chain retail and outlines the main features of the top 5 large spirits sellers. We single out special features, demonstrate special features of the companies’ activities, their staff policies and mass recruitment instruments. We formulated problems of staff recruiting for line positions, which hinder stability and efficiency of the organization and its innovative development basing on the analysis of human resources availability, compliance of personnel selection with the rules and closure of vacancies in a regional office of a large retailer. We assessed results of work and monetary incentives for recruitment managers, specialists’ functions and recruitment stages, we revealed their positive and negative features. We proved the need of application of digital instruments during mass recruitment, developed recommendations on introduction оf innovative automation solutions in creation of a unified base of applicants with the help of the Recruiter module -- especially important during the pandemic – whose introduction will help reduce labour input, decrease possible errors, improve the quality and speed of recruitment.

22.Semantic Conflict Of The Caucasian Languages And Scenarios For The Development Of Scientific Research
Boris Ataev, Sabrina Shikhalieva, Nina Barakhoeva, Zainab Alieva, Zabihat Otsomieva-tagirova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.90022  Pages 201 - 204
The article discusses the basic principles and steps of the preparation of interactive dictionaries for the Caucasian languages. Determination of the format for constructing a dictionary entry and displaying lexical information is carried out by ordering the electronic resource of the Caucasian language, entered in the UNESCO Red Book. The article discusses the first results of the input entries in the electronic dictionary database. Architecture electronic dictionary system allowed to include in the conversion anthroponymic borrowing. information search function is built by using the lexical analyzer in the content of the electronic dictionary. Webonary provides the ability to publish dictionaries with analysis of various textual information. Dictionary data is stored in the FLEx (Fieldworks Language Explorer) program, thereby showing lexical analysis information. The development task was as technical support lexical analysis and grammatical (including annotation and markup combination of spelling). For the analysis of anthroponymic components, a data processing technique was used that uses information from levels. The purpose of this article is to establish universal onomastic categories and the principles of their registration in the concordance of the Caucasian languages online dictionary "name of a subject * name of a person" ↑ "common noun * proper name".

23.V.G.Benediktov as Translator of Works by A.Dumas in Russia
Dmitry N. ZHATKIN, Nikolay L. Vasilyev, Igor R. Stepkin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.76258  Pages 205 - 210
The paper encyclopedizes information on the translations of works by Alexandre Dumas père, made by his contemporary, a well-known Russian poet of the 19th century V.G.Benediktov (1807-1873). In 1850-1860-ies the Russian poet turned to the interpretation of A.Dumas’s dramaturgy and translated comedies «Le Mari de la veuve», «Mademoiselle de Belle-Isle», historical drama «La Tour de Nesle», as well as separate parts of «Christine, ou Stockholm, Fontainebleau et Rome», a dramatic trilogy in five acts in verse with a prologue and epilogue. Noting A.Dumas’s significant lifetime fame in Russia, largely due to his acquaintances in the literary and aristocratic circles, a trip to Russia and publication of travel essays, etc., one cannot fail to admit that he is almost unknown as a playwright even nowadays. Forgotten V.G.Benediktov’s translations were preserved in his collection of works at the Department of Manuscripts of the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg, and only in 2020 they were first introduced into scientific circulation in the process of performing works under the project of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, named «V.G.Benediktov: Unpublished and Forgotten Works (Bibliography, Textology, Poetics)». There are prospects for further research of V.G.Benediktov’s translation heritage and the Russian translation reception of Alexandre Dumas.

24.Influence of European Mythological Traditions on Mythological Beliefs in English Folk Tale Discourse
Olga A. Plakhova, Oksana N. Ivanova, Nadezhda V. Belotserkovskaya
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.68815  Pages 211 - 218
In the paper, we review the main sources of mythological beliefs reflected in English folk tale discourse and provide a discursive description of borrowed elements of mythological complexes. Borrowed mythological beliefs are accumulated in the system of folk tale characters, attributes and motifs. Mythological motifs may become weakened and even reduced interacting with both one another and Christian beliefs. The reconstruction of the original mythological meaning of a word is carried out via the analysis of its inner form, the comparative analysis of folklore and mythological texts as well as via the in-depth study of other forms of folk culture.

25.Strategic Linguistic Definitions And Politological Discussions To The Assessment Of Tax Efficiency And Impact On The Economy
Filip Selamovski, Svetlana Evgenyevna Sobenina, N.V. Ponomareva, Ekaterina Golubtsova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.63549  Pages 219 - 227
Up until now, taxation it the only practical tool to increase public revenue to finance government spending on goods and services. However, it is quite difficult to create an effective and just tax system especially in developing and transition economies, whose main goal is to deepen integration in the global economy. Ideal taxation should maximize budget revenue without the necessity of excessive borrowing, which increases public debt, but at the same time to not hinder economic activity. The relevance of this issue lies in the need to improve and make it more resilient during economic stability. Therefore, in this study we reviewed main directions and objectives of the government’s tax policy taking into account the impact on the economy of COVIDD-19 and assessed the effectiveness of the measures implemented by the Russian authorities on the bases of the Small Business Index (RSBI). This novel coronavirus undoubtedly led to a severe downturn in economic activity and namely taxes will be one of the key tools for supporting business and individuals not only during the crisis, but as well during the stage of recovery.

26.Analyzing the Etymological Approach to Study English
Olga Vladilenovna Makashina, Alandarov Roman, Ekaterina Lutoshkina, Olga Alymova, Ravil Akhmadeev, Irina Avvakumova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.59480  Pages 228 - 236
Several studies reveal that vocabulary attainment is one of the most critical requirements of English language learners. As a matter of fact, Words are challenging to memorize out of context. There are numerous techniques to develop vocabulary by practicing them in communications, reading excellent books, studying newspapers and magazines, etc. There also remain several sources for people actively seeking to acquire new words. Identifying the roots of words, language scholars shortly learn the meaning of multiple exotic words they have never witnessed earlier, stemmed from the same root. Etymology is functional, efficient, and fascinating.
Moreover, it is a fast word attack strategy. Hence, the chief aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of etymological vocabulary instruction on the adult EFL learners’. To accomplish the aim of the study, we utilized and gathered several relevant studies to be able to draw an informative and thorough conclusion. The outcomes of the study demonstrate that the students getting treatment in the experimental group outdid those in the control group.

27.The study of the category of modality in the paremiological units of english, tatar and spanish languages
Aida G. Sadykova, Guzel M. Tuktarova, Elmira M. Vildanova, Nailya R. Gafiatullina, Diana F. Kajumova, Gulsina R. Akhmetzyanova, Diana I. Khripkova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.58070  Pages 237 - 240
The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the modality of English, Spanish and Tatar proverbs. The article studies paremiological units (PUs) with a modality component of the meaning of life, happiness, luck, fate; friendship, mutual respect; love for home and loved ones in English, Tatar and Spanish. PUs with a modality component of the meaning of life, happiness, luck, fate; friendship, mutual respect; love for home and loved ones are one of the most common thematic groups. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that modality is one of the most complex and contradictory concepts in linguistics. The topic of this research is relevant for modern linguistics to identify the features and structure of modality in the proverbs of the English, Spanish and Tatar languages. The article examines the points of view of Soviet and modern linguists on the origin and features of the category of modality, its relevance in the scientific world of linguistics. The article deals with the structural - grammatical and structural - lexical features of the expression of modality in the paremiological units of the compared languages. The general and particular types using the modality of proverbs are highlighted, as well as their classification. The research results presented in the article are of interest to scientists studying the modality of proverbs in English, Spanish and Tatar languages. The results can be used both in the study and analysis of cultural and research problems and language learning processes.

28.Reception Of Peri's Image In Russian Poetry Of The Xix Century (The Second Article)
Tatiana A. YASHINA, Dmitry N. Zhatkin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.38243  Pages 241 - 246
The article presents additions to the scientific research of D.N. Zhatkin and A.P. Dolgov «Peri in Russian poetry», published in 2007 in the magazine «Russian speech» and comprehending the facts that influenced on the process of assimilation of the symbolic image of Peri, who came from Eastern mythology and appeared in the works of Russian writers and translators thanks to the reception of the works of Thomas Moore, namely one of his frame tales of the eastern story «Lalla Rookh» «Paradise and Peri», successfully interpreted by V.A. Zhukovsky, whose translation, published under the title «Peri and the Angel», caused a surge of interest in Russia to the oriental poetry and influenced the system of images and plots in the works of many Russian authors. This article is the first to systematize materials on the topic related to the literary work of such poets of the «second row» as D.V. Davydov, I.P. Myatlev, E.P. Rostopchina, L.A. Yakubovich, V.S. Pecherin, S. Ya.Nadson, P.F. Yakubovich. In their works, Russian poets of the «second row» traditionally continued to use the symbolic image of the peri to describe a woman with an unusual attractiveness and lightness, possessing the ability to conquer men’s heart at first sight and take away to other worlds.

29.Functioning of Metaphor Through the Prism of Invariant Theory in Polysemy
Svetlana A. Pesina, Svetlana A. Vinogradova, Svetlana V. Kiseleva, Nella A. Trofimova, Svetlana V. Rudakova, Tatyana Yu. Baklykova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.34356  Pages 247 - 252
The article attempts to address the problem of polysemy via metaphor, since metaphor is one of the constitutive conditions for the existence of language, the most important way of describ-ing objects of a high degree of abstraction. Mechanisms that provide quick access to lexemes with-out the need to scan lists of meanings are presented, the mechanisms of functioning of metaphorical meanings are described. It is suggested that the use of the core of meaning that stands for the entire structure of a polysemantic word allows in the process of communication to carry out an effective search and to fit metaphorical meanings into the context of utterances. A lexical invariant acts as a general cognitive model of perception and understanding of the world, and at the neurobiological level it leads to the build-up of new neural connections. Such formations play the role of effective substitutes, dispensing consciousness with the necessity of scanning the entire spectrum of meta-phorical meanings, supporting the principle of linguistic economy therewith.

30.Cognitive Linguistic Aspects of the Most Important Functions of Language
Svetlana A. Pesina, Lyalya G. Yusupova, Lyubov V. Pavlova, Aleksandra A., Elena N. Derevskova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.33716  Pages 253 - 257
The article presents the classification and key features of the most important language functions. Consideration of the leading position of bio-cognitive science that language cognition is associated with functioning of the entire human nervous system necessitates specifying the leading functions of language. The list of language functions has been continued with a generalizing invariant function which is a generalized meaningful core of the whole lexical structure of a word, formed by a native speaker over time, which allows them to have good situation awareness. A figurative fantasy function presented in the article is meant to provide a link between language and imagination by sparing consciousness copresence. The article reflects the scholars’ controversy concerning the determination of a key function of language. A communicative function of language is replaced by an adaptive one with ever increasing frequency, and language capacity is considered as a biological property of a living organism. The adaptive function of language implies the modification of the behavior of communicants such that the reality provides them with the best conditions for interaction. A communicant modifies their speech behavior, enhancing their general adaptational capacity in the surrounding. Thus, linguistic signs perform the function of orienting toward a more effective type of interpersonal interaction. The method of analytical reconstruction made it possible to obtain a systematic understanding of verbal and cogitative processes and conceptualization of semantic experience through the prism of understanding the functions of language.

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